Friday, May 17, 2019
Spc2608 Exam Two Study Guide
Chapter 24 Persuasive Speaking Goal reach desired ends by an right actorI. Persuasion the art faculty of notice in a given case the functional means of persuasion. Persuasion is symbolic, non-coercive (not forced) influence 3 f shapeors scenesocial, cultural, political climate Agentpersuader manslayer audition **Equal opp. To persuade, Complete apocalypse of agendaslet audience know complete list of goals and how you depute to get audience there, Critical receivers give up to understand w put ons being said trusty cistronive roletakes communication seriouslyTake responsibility for what is said and deal with consequencesFosters communicate choicegives all lieusAppeals to the best in volumenot the worst mean receiverAw be of attempts to influencebe aw ar of motivesInformed about important government issuesKnow their own biasesknow what predisposes us alert not to engage in defensive listeningAware of methods of persuasionInfluence the beliefs, attitude, and acts of other sFocus on motivation What motivates meeters? Make your message in soul relevant Demonstrate the benefit of change Set modest goalsTarget issues the audience haves strongly about record credibilityII. Speeches built upon rail focussing line, 3 forms of magic spells Logos, Ethos, PathosLogosappeal to reason or logic, *Aristotle wished that all appealing done through discussion *Our ability to articulate rationality, appealing to logic and development reasoning to persuadeEthoscredibility, moral suit. To establish turn toer credibility * Present upshots slewdidly, establish identification, commonality, and good leave behind, usance personal knowledgePathosemotional states of audience.Pride, love, anger etc. rive our motionsDone through vivid imagery **Aristotle said Two main sources of immediate emotion= LOVE AND FEAR Syllogism major(ip) premise obvious statement Minor premiseextension of major premises logic Conclusionderived from above two main ONE All humans are mor tal Socrates is human Socrates is mortal RHETORICAL SYLLOGISM=Enthymeme * Created by Aristotle * He claims that this communicates without saying EVERYTHINGaudience can fill in whites * Idea is that we can fill in the blank ourselvesthat process is powerfulus persuading ourselves 3 cornerstones of ethical fitnessCredibility-confidence, character, ETHOS (as speaker)worthy of trust *Makes people pauperism to listen to us, tend to it with care Integritya state of incorruptibilityshould signal that we are willing to annul compromising the truth for the sake of personal expediency Stabilityrespect for others, cooperation, self-sacrifice Being audience centeredto whom and for whom, worthy, honored, and respected as individualsIII. Target listener needsMas natural depressions hierarchy of needseach of us has a basic set of needs that range from crucial to self-improving. Ex. To convince one to substance abuse seatbelts, appeal to ones need for safety. basic needs Physiological, Safety, Social, Self-esteem, and Self-actualizationIV. Mental EngagementCentral processing seriously consider your message, more possible to act Peripheral processing Lack motivation to judge argument based on meritsmost likely wont experience meaningful change **For Central processing Link argument to practical concerns, present message at enamor level of understanding, demonstrate common bond, stress credibilityV. Sound arguments walk conclusion, evidence, link to reasoningClaim states conclusion w/ evidence. A line of reasoning is called a warrant. Fact Focus on truth/lie, what will/wont happenaddress issue with 2+ sides Value steer judgment issues, right VS wrong Policy recommend proper(postnominal) course of actionpropose circumstantial outcome Deductive reasoning begin with global principle, use specifics, lead to conclusion Inductive from specific to generalizations supportedevidence pointing to conclusionVI. Logical fallacy insincere statement leading to invalid reasoningBeg ging the questionargument stated so that it cannot help just now be true, even without evidenceBandwagoninguses unsubstantiated opinion as false evidenceEither-orgives entirely two alternatives Ad hominem argumenttargets a person and not the argumentRed herringrelies on foreign premise for conclusionHasty generalizationargument where, in an isolated incidence, it proves true and is used to make an unwarranted general conclusionNon sequiturdoes not follow conclusion doesnt = reasoningSlippery slopefault assumption that one case will lead to events or actionsAppeal to traditionSuggest audience should agree b/c its the way its ever beenAddressing means economic values Cultural norms, cultural premises, emotions **BE SENSITIVEVII. MonroesMotivated sequence 5 step process, arouse listener attention + end with call of action resultantive when you want audience to do somethingStep 1 attention, addresses core concerns, relevance, credibility, etc.Step 2 Need, describes issue at hand, s hows importance of needStep 3 Satisfaction, identify solutionproposalStep 4 Visualization, vision of evaluate outcomeStep 5 Action, ask audience to act in accordance to acceptance of message 4 pillars of characterTrustworthinessbeing honest, revealing the true purpose. Honest and dependableRespectrecognize audience members are uniqueNO PERSONAL ATTACKS, allow audience power of rational choiceResponsibilityaccountability for what we say and dooffering take over appealsFairnessacknowledge all sides of issuegiving the audience enough information to make a finality**In additionCaring and Citizenship Caringbeing kind and compassionate Citizenshipdoing our part as citizens Chapter 16 Using LanguageI. Style * Simplicitytranslate jargon into common terms * Be conciseuse fewer talking to, use repetition * Personal pronounsDraw audience in, encourage involvement Concrete lecture VS Abstract Concrete conveys specific and tangible meanings * Abstract general, leaves meaning to interpretati on Imageryconcrete talking to that paints pictures * Figures of nomenclature metaphors, similes, and analogies where book of accounts are used in nonliteral fashion to achieve rhetorical effect Code switching selective use of dialect that can give your speech friendliness, humor, earthiness, nostalgia, etc. obviate * Malapropismsincorrect uses of word where it sounds like it fits * Biased language * Unnecessary JargonII. Voiceactive, indicates subject relation to action Use culturally sensitive and gender-neutral language, shows respect for beliefs, norms, and traditions Repetition to create cycle per secondrepeating key words or phrases to create distinctive rhythm and enforce idea into minds of listeners * Anaphora Repeated phrase at beginning of successive phrases/clauses/sent. Ex. I Have A Dream-MLK Alliteration for poetic qualityRepetition of identical sounds in 2+ neighboring words * Ex. Down with dope, up with hope-Jesse Jackson Parallelism formation of words/phrases in similar form Helps to emphasize important ideas of the speech, creates rhythm* Ex. Orally numbering points thingumabob of antithesis (One small step for man, one giant leap for man kind) * Repeating a key word in intro, body, and conclusion Chapter 25 Speaking on special occasions Speech that is prepared for a purpose dictated by the occasion, can be informative or persuasive **Commemorative speechpays tribute with fundamental purpose to thrill audience Employ imagerystylistic devices, varied rhythm * Antithesis, alliteration, assonance * Hyperboledeliberately overstating in a fanciful way * Analogy Use snappy languageavoid overused phrases, select words that capture the thought * stay off monotony, vary rhythm, use humorWhen using humor * Familiarize self with devices of humorexaggeration, iron, anti-statement, joke telling * Analyze our own talents when delivering humorous speeches condense on what other people think is funny about you, not what YOU think is funny * Avoid hum or pitfallssteer clear of anything offensive * Use humorous everyday experiencesrelatable Consider audienceTo whom/for whom we speak * Address audience in ways that will resonate with them * Use mood to craft an appropriate message ** Meaning is created in the nexus between speaker and audienceI.Special Occasion Speech function To entertain, celebrate, commemorate, inspire or set social agenda * Entertainlisteners expect light-hearted, amusing speech. Speaker offers degree of acumen on topic * CelebrateSpeaker praises subject of celebrationa degree of ceremony in accordance with norms of the occasion * Commemorateoffer tribute and memories * Inspireex. Inaugural address, key note speech, commencement exercisemotivate by examples of accomplishment * Set social agendaarticulation of goal/groups values, ex. Fundraisers, banquets, cause oriented gatheringsII.Speech of Introduction Warms up the audience for main speaker, heighten interest, and build credibility iv ELEMENTS background , subject of message, occasion, audience * Speaker backgroundachievements and facts showing why speaker is relevant * Subject, Preview topicsense of why subject is of interest, does NOT evaluate speech or comment on it * crave for audience welcome * Be brief2 minute max.III. Speech of Acceptanceresponse to an award. purport express gratitude for honor * Prepared in advance * Express what the award means to you, convey its value * Show gratitude, thank people by nameIV. Speech of Presentation (1) communicate meaning of the award and (2) justify why recipient is receiving it Convey awards meaning what it is for and represents, mention sponsors and their link to the award apologise why recipient is receiving it Highlight achievements, qualifying attributes, and why he deserves it Plan physical presentation Consider logistics forwardshandV. Roast/Toast, roasthumorous tribute that pokes fun, toastshort celebrating speech focused on achievement * Prepare draft, rehearse, etc. but app ear impromptu * Highlight traits Limit to 1-2 best attributes that convey qualities hat make the person a focus of celebration * Be unconditional have a positive tone as it pays tribute to honoree * Be briefVI. Eulogy/other, Eulogy derived from Greek words to praise ordinarily done by a close friend or family member of deceased Celebrates a persons life, commemorating while consoling those left behind * Balance delivery and emotion earreach is seeking guidance dealing with the loss, give them closure. * Refer to family of deceasedShow respect and mention names, as the funeral is primarily to benefit them * Be positive, but authorizedistic Emphasize deceaseds positive qualities, but avoid excess praiseVII. After Dinner Speechlight hearted and entertaining listeners are to gain cortical potential into topic. Usually given at some time during a civil, business, or professional meeting as it is to follow a formal dinner * Recognize occasionspeech should be on topic to avoid appearin g canned or used over and over in diff. settings. Keep remarks low key to be considerate to those eatingVIII. Inspiration Speechmotivate listener to positively consider, reflect on, or act according to speakers words. Use emotional force urge us towards purer motives reminding us of a common good. Appeal to emotions(1) vivid description and (2) emotionally charged words * Use real storiesExamples of REAL people accomplishing goals and triumphing adversities * Be dynamicinspire through delivery * Have clear goals * typical organization devicehelp audience remember message Ex. Acronyms * Dramatic endinginspires audience to feel or act Persuasion Aristotle, called persuasion rhetoric or the art. Defined as the faculty of observing in a given case the available means of persuasion. Kenneth Burke persuasionartful use of the resources of ambiguity. Stay away from specifics find ways to have the audience identify with the action or side that we wantmuch like advertising **Think of persua sion as enlightenmentas an hazard to view a different perspective. A chance to create something from nothing by establishing new relationships by sharing experiences, and creating understanding in contentious issues. Ethical Persuasion Ethical communication and persuasion are an idealour communication improves exponentially the closer we get to this ideal. The goal is to reach the desired ends through an honest means. **Persuasion is symbolic, non-coercive influence.Symbolic communication language is our symbolic representation of realityNon coercive=not forced, we have a choice. In order for persuasion to occur ethically the target of the persuasive message must have the perception of choice, they must understand that they have a choice whether or not to accept the persuasive appeal. In order for this perception of choice to be a reality, several conditions must be met, if these conditions are not met, and then the communicative act is coercion not persuasion. Checklist for resp onsible persuasionshould do before we engageethically, we should aim to ensure certain characteristics/qualities exist.The three factorsI. Context where, the climatecultural, politicalII. Agent the persuaderIII. Receiver audienceI. Context (three conditions that must be met for ethical persuasion) 1. Both/All sides should have equal opportunity to persuade (if we only hear one side we have no choice ) and ALL sides should have equal rise to power to communication media (but in most cases one needs money for this).2. There should be complete revelation of agendaseach side must notify the audience of its true aims and goals and say how it intends to go about achieving them. This means that you must tell the audience where you want to take them eventually, not just steps along the waythey should know your ultimate aim, so you should divulge aim.3. The third condition, and most important, is that there must be hypercritical receivers, receivers who test the assertions and evidence available. To be ethical communication there must be people who can evaluate what is being saidan informed public with tools to analyze, or the speaker/agent should provide them tools. It is both the speaker and audiences fault because no one wants to take the time to learn, work, critically evaluate, etc.II. Agent 1. The responsible agent takes communication seriously and is prepared to take responsibility for what is said and to deal with the consequences.2. Responsible communication fosters informed choice. We should aim to give the audience both sides of the issues we are advocatingto give them all the information that is available and then inform them why our side is better.3.The responsible agent appeals to the best in people, not the worst. We must be careful not to take advantage of an audiences fears, ignorance, or biasesif people are coerced theyll get up ship later.III. Receiver (four things to consider)1. Responsible receivers are aware of attempts to influence. We mus t be alert, critical, and constantly aware of the motives of the messages most us and attempts to persuade.2. Responsible receivers stay informed about important topics. Issues affecting us must be investigated so that we are ready when persuasive messages hit us.We are the engines of democracy we must be critical and involved3. Responsible receivers know their own biases. We must avoid defending against messages simply because a message is dreadful and or challenges what we believe. We must know what predisposes us to look at things in a certain way, and be careful not to engage in selective listening, etc. This helps us to keep from immediately discounting information.4. Responsible receivers are aware of methods of persuasionso we should study and learn methods of persuasion (which you are doing now ).