Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Explain the process by which democracy was accepted as a valid form of government Essay

Democracy denotes to a government by the people. The name comes from the Greek and means â€Å"rule by the people. † Democracy is government by the majority of the people, or majority rule. It differs from monarchy (â€Å"rule by one†), aristocracy (â€Å"rule by the best, or nobles†), and oligarchy (â€Å"rule by a few†). Democracy has three different related meanings: (1) a form of government in which those who control the government are elected by the people and are responsible, or answerable, for their actions to the people; (2) a form of society in which there is no privileged class and in which individuals may rise by ability to positions of power and influence; and (3) an ideal or way of life that stresses equality, liberty, individual rights, tolerance, freedom of discussion, and compromise. Most democracies are republics, in which the people elect the head of the state. A monarchy with a hereditary king or queen may also be democratic. In Great Britain, for example, is a democracy in the form of a limited monarchy. Some countries that call themselves republics are not democracies. A country with a republican constitution may be a dictatorship in which government is under the complete control of one person. On the other hand, republic is a country in which both the head of the state and the members of the legislature are elected directly or indirectly by the people. Most of the nations of the world today, including the United States and the Soviet Union, are republics. The rest, in most instances, are monarchies, in which the head of the state (a king, queen, or prince) comes into office through inheritance. The term republic and government are sometimes confused. Republic means a constitutional form of government under which the head of the state is elected, either by direct popular vote or indirectly through elected representatives. In addition, social contract denotes to human race originally lived in a â€Å"state of nature,† in which people enjoyed complete freedom, with no laws and no government. Without constraints on their activities, however, people were constantly fighting among themselves, and the safety of each individual was endangered. To ensure their survival, people eventually made an agreement called a social contract, to establish a system a law and order. On the other hand, balance of power is relatively equal distribution of economic and military strength among rival countries or groups countries. For 400 years, the countries of Europe devoted much of their diplomatic and military effort to creating or maintaining such a balance. Their object was to prevent any single nation or group of nations from becoming powerful enough to dominate the continent. The idea of maintaining power equilibrium became an important influence in European politics in the 16th century. An outstanding example of balance-of-power politics occurred in the Thirty Years’ War (1618-48). Furthermore, Republican Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. Since the time of the Taft administration (1909-13) it has generally been regarded as more conservative than the other major party, the Democratic. However, this difference between the two parties has not always been sharp, as the Republican Party initiated or supported progressive legislation. Also, the Republican Party, like the Democratic, has both liberal and conservative factions. Nonetheless, the Republican Party is generally associated with the interests of business, the wealthy and propertied, and those opposed to the ideas of the welfare state and a â€Å"big government. †

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